Home

Sojuz progress

Raketa Sojuz úspěšně vynesla loď Progress k ISS – Novinky

Soyuz, capable of spending six months docked to a station, can serve as a lifeboat, allowing a space station to be evacuated at any time if conditions require it. Progress supply ships, based on Soyuz technology, can supply orbiting stations with fuel, water, food, spare parts, and other critical items Progress (rus. Прогресс; pokrok) je automatická nákladní kosmická loď odvozená z pilotované transportní lodě typu Sojuz. Do vesmíru je vynášena různými variantami nosných raket typu Sojuz. Výrobcem a provozovatelem je NPO Energija (НПО Энергия, nyní RKK Energija im. S. P. Koroljova), Kaliningrad (nyní Koroljov), Moskevská obl., RSFSR (SSSR) Raketa Sojuz ( rus. Союз; svaz fonetická výslovnost sajuz) je rodina nosných raket, vyvinutých OKB-1 a vyráběných firmou CSKB-Progress v Samaře. Podle Evroé kosmické agentury jsou nosné rakety Sojuz nejspolehlivější a nejčastěji používané nosné rakety na světě Sojuz a Progress klidně čekají na svůj návrat na Zemi během našeho přeletu nad Baja California a Chile. Ačkoli lodě vypadají podobně, Progress (vzadu) je nepilotovaný a používá se.

Soyuz and Progress Spacecraft Historic Spacecraf

  1. Progress; Sojuz GVK; Orjol (kosmická loď) Externí odkazy. Obrázky, zvuky či videa k tématu Sojuz ve Wikimedia Commons; WADE, Mark. Encyclopedia Astronautica [online]. 1997-2008 [cit. 2008-11-15]. Kapitola Soyuz. Dostupné online. (anglicky) Rusko.
  2. Z kosmodromu Bajkonur ve středu ráno úspěšně odstartovala raketa Sojuz 2.1 s lodí Sojuz MS-17. Na palubě byli tři noví členové posádky Mezinárodní vesmírné stanice. Let trval tři hodiny. Posádka tak strávila v tomto dopravním prostředku zatím nejméně času ze všech pilotovaných letů. K přiblížení ke stanici jí stačily jen dva oblety Země
  3. Derivatives. Shenzhou, Progress. Soyuz ( Russian: Сою́з, IPA: [sɐˈjus], lit. 'Union') is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today, having made more than 140 flights
  4. Soyuz / Progress. Model Designed by: Dan Fallon. Soyuz (Russian: Сою́з, IPA: [sɐˈjus], lit. 'Union') is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today, having made more than 140 flights. The Soyuz succeeded the Voskhod spacecraft.
  5. A Russian Soyuz rocket launched the robotic Progress 71 cargo ship to the International Space Station on Nov. 16, 2018 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakh..
  6. imálně 3 znaky! Přihlášení.
  7. Překoná tak rekord lodě Progress M-17, která létala ve složení vesmírné stanice Mir v letech 1993 a 1994 po dobu 337 dní. Příčina tak dlouhého pobytu Progressu ve vesmíru nebyla oznámena, dříve bylo ale ohlášeno, že se zkoumá možnost prodloužení doby pobytu pilotovaných lodí Sojuz ve složení ISS na více než 220.

Progress je automatická nákladní loď, byl odvozen od lodi Sojuz, ale místo návratového modulu je vybavena nákladní palubou, která později při vstupu do atmosféry shoří povrch obou lodí je pokryt izolační obšívkou zelené či šedé barv Z kazašského kosmodromu Bajkonur odstartovala nosná raketa Sojuz FG, která vynesla nákladní loď Progress MS-10 se zásobami a materiálem směrem k Mezinárodní vesmírné stanici (ISS). Pro raketu to je první let k ISS od jejího selhání z 11. října, kvůli kterému se na vesmírnou stanici nedostali dva noví členové posádky Vystřihovánka ABC - Sojuz 28 - Saljut 6 - Progress 1. Rozsah: 2 A4. Autor: Václav Šorel, František Kobík. Více vyhraných aukcí = jedno poštovné dle váhy a cení

Ruská raketa Sojuz-FG v pátek z kosmodromu Bajkonur v Kazachstánu úspěšně vynesla do vesmíru nákladní loď Progress MS-10 se zásobami a materiálem pro Mezinárodní vesmírnou stanici (ISS). Oznámilo to ruské středisko řízení letů. Šlo o první start tohoto typu nosné rakety od selhání 11. října, kvůli kterému musela nouzově přistát pilotovaná loď Sojuz MS-10 s. Prodám vystřihovánku z časopisu ABC. Jedná se o model - orbitální komplex Sajuz 28 - Saljut 6 - Progress 1. Sledujte i další moje aukce, více vyhraných aukcí j Raketa Sojuz s lodí Progress MS-02 momentálně podstupuje dvoudenní etapu předstartovních příprav, kdy se nosič na různých místech připojuje k rampě. Jde o spojky elektrických systémů, datové kabely, ale také o potrubí, kterým budou natankovány nádrže nosiče The two photographs you have posted show that the soyuz middle section is longer than the corresponding re-entry module of Soyuz. You can also see the differences between the Soyuz and Progress here Wiki.They are significantly different in that for Progress the re-entry capsule has been replaced and the ISS crew have no access other than to the orbital module Krásná seriálová sestra Evy Burešové už své nahé tělo ukázala. Znovu to ale odmítá (56x); Herečka Tereza Pokorná provokuje: Ukázala se nahá

Progress - Wikipedi

  1. Progress vynášela raketa Sojuz, po dosažení oběžné dráhy zamířil automaticky ke stanici, ke které se po dvou dnech letu připojil. Navádění probíhá automaticky nebo v režii člena posádky vesmírného komplexu. Ne vždy byl ovšem manévr úspěšný. Historie orbitálních stanic pamatuje připojení až po několika.
  2. Téma: Ceny lodí Progress a Sojuz: 31.7.2011 - 21:16 - Vladimír Ajgl: Ceny raket jsou dost dobře známé. Před 10 lety se uváděly často, nyní zřídka ale přeci jen občas ano. A tak je známo například, že před 10 lety byla cena rakety Sojuz 40 mil. USD a nyní je 50 mil. USD
  3. Above: Rollout of the Soyuz rocket with Progress M-25M spacecraft on Oct. 27, 2014. Launch. The launch of a Soyuz-2.1a rocket with the 7,290-kilogram Progress M-25M spacecraft took place as scheduled on Oct. 29, 2014, at 10:09:43 Moscow Time (3:09 a.m. EDT) from Baikonur Cosmodrome's Pad 6 at Site 31.Following a vertical liftoff, the launch vehicle headed east to enter an orbit with an.
  4. The Soyuz later released an aerodynamic shroud that covered the Progress supply ship, jettisoned its core stage, and ignited a third stage engine to deliver the cargo freighter into orbit
  5. The Soyuz MS-03 crew ship (foreground) and the Progress 66 cargo craft are pictured as the International Space Station orbits about 250 miles above Earth
  6. The Soyuz U launch vehicle is derived from the Soviet R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile and produced by the Progress Rocket Space Center. It is comprised of four strap-on boosters (stage 1), a central core stage (stage 2), and an upper stage (stage 3). The Soyuz U variant was used to launch the early Progress resupply vehicles to the ISS

Sojuz (nosná raketa) - Wikipedi

A Roscosmos Soyuz-2 rocket launched the Progress MS-14 (75P) mission on Saturday, April 25, 2020 at 1:51 AM (UTC) Both Soyuz and Progress missions traditionally took about two days to reach the International Space Station. In 2013, the Soyuz spacecraft carrying three Expedition 35 crewmembers to orbit became. A Soyuz rocket decorated to mark the 75th anniversary of the end of World War II in Europe fired into space Friday from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, sending a Progress supply ship on a.

A Soyuz rocket carrying the Progress M-67 cargo ship lifted off from Baikonur Cosmodrome on July 24, 2009, at 14:56:56 Moscow Time. The mission carried more than 2,549 kilograms of supplies to the ISS. The docking with the outpost was planned for July 29, 2009, at 15:16 Moscow Time (11:16 GMT) ISS030-E-032132 (1 Jan. 2012) -- A Russian Soyuz spacecraft (foreground) and Progress resupply spacecraft, docked to the International Space Station, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 30 crew member on the station. The thin line of Earth's atmosphere and the blackness of space provide the backdrop for the scene Soyuz (Russian: Союз, meaning union, GRAU index 11A511) is a family of Soviet expendable launch systems developed by OKB-1 and manufactured by Progress Rocket Space Centre in Samara, Russia.With over 1,700 flights since its debut in 1966, the Soyuz is the most frequently used launch vehicle in the world

The International Space Station has hosted a variety of spacecraft shuttling crews and delivering supplies The launch of the modernized Soyuz-2.1a launch vehicle with the Progress MS-15 TGC is scheduled for July 23, 2020 from platform No. 31 of the Baikonur Cosmodrome. The Progress MS-15 automatic cargo ship will supply the crew of the 63rd expedition with fuel, water and gas supplies, as well as office equipment and life support equipment under the. The Progress resupply vehicle is an automated, unpiloted version of the Soyuz spacecraft that is used to bring supplies and fuel to the International Space Station. Progress MS-13 will deliver close to 2,480 kilograms of supplies to the ISS, including around 420 kilograms of water in the containers of the Rodnik system, around 50 kilograms of pressurized oxygen in tanks, around 650 kilograms. Russia are scheduled to launch a Soyuz rocket with the 71st Progress cargo delivery ship from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan to the International Space Station. The Progress MS-10 spacecraft will carry about 2450 kg of cargo and supplies to the International Space Station. The spacecraft will deliver food, fuel an. A Russian Soyuz rocket has successfully lifted the 60th Progress transport cargo spacecraft into space from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, launching it on a mission to resupply the International Space Station

Soyuz and Progress Spacecraft | Historic Spacecraft

For Progress (without the cost of ~2.8 tonnes of cargo): Rocket: ~1.25 (Soyuz 2.1a) = 20.83 mil dollars. Ship: ~0.9 (Progress MS) = 15 mil dollars. Logistic: ~0.15 (delivery of rocket and ship to cosmodrome and storage before launch) Launch: ~0.3 (preparation for launch, services and fuel) Tracking: ~0.3 (control of orbital flight, docking. Russian Launchers - Soyuz, Progress and Unmanned . Normal Topic Hot Topic (More than 15 replies) Very Hot Topic (More than 25 replies) Locked Topic Sticky Topic Poll Advertisement. Advertisement. Tweets by NASASpaceflight. Advertisement. Advertisement. Advertisement. Advertisement. Advertisement The mission, dubbed Progress 76, blasted off on a Russian Soyuz rocket today (July 23) from Russia's workhorse launch site, Baikonur Cosmodrome, in Kazakhstan at 7:26 p.m. local time (10:26 a.m. See attached collated details of the costs of Soyuz and Progress spacecrafts, taken from the Energia contracts. I left it in Russian, Google works fine at translation. Also I left off a few headers because I'm not quite sure of the correct terminology. Energia Contracts - Soyuz & Progress.xlsx (38.69 kB - downloaded 111 times. A Soyuz-U rocket soared into the sky on Saturday, July 16, carrying the third Progress MS spacecraft loaded with supplies for the International Space Station ().Liftoff took place at 5:41 p.m. EDT.

Originally, Progress MS-10 was set to launch on a different variant of the Soyuz, the 2-1a, but this was changed on 13 August 2018 when the mission was remanifested to use a Soyuz-FG launcher instead Sojuz-L (11A511L) - v letech 1970 až 1971 celkem 3 starty. Sojuz-M (11A511M) - v letech 1971 až 1976 celkem 8 startů. Sojuz-U (11A511U) - nejpoužívanější verze Sojuzu, zároveň i vůbec nejpoužívanější kosmická raketa na světě. V letech 1973 až 2017 se uskutečnilo 786 startů Soyuz progress. 165 Humblerickard64. 8 months ago . Spotlight Post × Spotlighting lets you share this post with all of your followers.. The launch of the Soyuz-2.1a launch vehicle from the Progress MS-14 TGC to the International Space Station is scheduled for April 25, 2020 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. An automatic cargo ship will deliver to the crew of the 63rd Expedition the fuel and gas reserves, as well as office equipment and life support equipment under the program of.

Soyuz MS-16 was the 62nd Soyuz to launch for the International Space Station. It traveled 83 million miles (133.5 million km) spanning 3,136 orbits of Earth. Russia's Soyuz MS-16 spacecraft is seen after landing from the International Space Station with NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy and cosmonauts Anatoli Ivanishin and Ivan Vagner of Roscosmos. Serial Number: Progress M1-3 (No.251) Progress M1-3 (Russian: Прогресс М1-3), identified by NASA as Progress 1 or 1P, was a Progress spacecraft used to resupply the International Space Station. Progress Detail A Russian Soyuz rocket launched the unmanned Progress 44 cargo ship from Baikonur Cosmodrome on Aug. 24, 2011 but failed to reach orbit. See photos from the failed rocket launch

201503280003hq (03/27/2015) — The Soyuz TMA-16M spacecraft launches to the International Space Station. Photo Credit (NASA/Bill Ingalls) Station managers from Roscosmos have announced new Soyuz and Progress spacecraft launch dates through the end of the year The Progress cargo module is similar in construction to the Soyuz orbital module. The cargo module carries pressurized cargo which the crew transfers into the station through the docking hatch

Sojuz a Progress - YouTub

The Soyuz-2.1a features four boosters powered by RD-107a engines, a core stage (that includes both the rocket's first and second stage) powered by one RD-108a engine with four combustion chambers, and an upper stage based on the architecture of the Soyuz-U upper stage and powered by an RD-0110 engine $\begingroup$ BTW large part of what appears to be white on the first photo are just parts of the rocket with frozen ice condensation on it because there's LOX (cryogenic liquid oxygen) tanks under. Before fueling, and with exception of the topmost payload part (TMA and Progress vehicles), the launch vehicles in first and second photo (both Soyuz) are actually identical in colors A Russian Soyuz-U launch vehicle launched the M-07M/39P Progress resupply ship into orbit on Friday morning, enroute to what was an issue-free Sunday docking with the International Space Station.

Październik | 2014 | -Undocking confirm! SpaceSite

Sojuz (kosmická loď) - Wikipedi

Progress Space Centre will develop and manufacture the new launch vehicle. In July, Roscosmos announced that its subsidiary Energia had signed an agreement with Kazakh company Baiterek to create a Soyuz-5 launch complex at the Baikonur space centre A Soyuz on Approach to the International Space Station - Photo: GCTC. Russia plans to speed up the rendezvous of the country's Soyuz and Progress spacecraft to bring crews and cargo to the International Space Station faster than with the current six-hour flight profile that has been in use for the last five years The Soyuz and Progress 44 spaceship crashed in Siberia, Russian space officials said. An investigation into the crash found that contamination in a gas generator fuel line or valve was the most.

Rekordní let ruské kosmické lodi

You can do us a favor and calculate the increased cost of using 2-1A vs Soyuz-U for Progress, to see if there is a significant difference. We could then figure out the launch cost of flying the additional 400 kg of payload. 2014 - Soyuz-U 685,047,000 ruble. On this flight, Roscosmos intends to use their Fast Rendezvous technique for the first time for a crewed flight. This technique allows the Soyuz to reach the ISS in just two orbits, or about 3 hours. Previous flights that achieved this were applied only to Progress re-supply missions Photo: Roscosmos. Russia's Soyuz 2-1A launch vehicle, tasked with carrying a Progress cargo ship into orbit on Wednesday, was moved to its launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on Sunday for the standard two-day on-pad campaign to prepare for countdown operations NASA.gov brings you the latest images, videos and news from America's space agency. Get the latest updates on NASA missions, watch NASA TV live, and learn about our quest to reveal the unknown and benefit all humankind

Soyuz-FG debuted on May 20, 2001, when it lifted off with the Progress M1-6 cargo craft to ISS. To date, the booster was launched 65 times and only its latest flight was unsuccessful That is the Soyuz launch vehicle and the Soyuz and or Progress spacecraft each cost $14,316,392.27 dollars at today's rate or 800 million Rubles which equals a total of $28,632,784.54 dollars It has been on every Soyuz and Progress flight since the first. Jay Chladek Member . Posts: 2272 From: Bellevue, NE, USA Registered: Aug 2007: posted 11-07-2011 10:20 AM It isn't all that different from the blanket coverings used in shuttle payload bays. The darker colorings utilized are interesting, but I imagine the Russians do that to help. December 6: Soyuz-2-1a delivers Progress MS-13. Completing Russian missions to the International Space Station, ISS, in 2019 and for the 2010s, the Soyuz-2-1a rocket lifted off on December 6, 2019, successfully sending the Progress MS-13 cargo ship on a three-day trek to the outpost Soyuz rocket missions in 2004. January 29: Soyuz-U rocket successfully launched a cargo ship to resupply the crew of the International Space Station, ISS.The Progress M1-11, No. 260, cargo ship (Mission 13P) blasted off from Baikonur Cosmodrome's Site 1 on January 29, 2004, at 14:58:08 Moscow Time.. In preparation for the new arrival, a previous transport craft, the Progress M-48, left the the.

Soyuz later! SpaceX gets NASA green light to lob astronauts to the International Space Station full time Russian rockets are Putin on the back burner, except for emergencies This certification milestone is an incredible achievement from NASA and SpaceX that highlights the progress we can make working together with commercial industry.. Progress was originally developed to supply the Salyut 6 space station. It was subsequently used successively to supply the crews staying on board the Salyut 7, Mir, and the International Space Station. The Progress spacecraft is largely derived from the Soyuz spacecraft intended for the transport of crews in low orbit Progress Cargo Ship Docked to Station April 25, 2020: International Space Station Configuration. Four spaceships are attached at the space station including the U.S. Northrop Grumman Cygnus cargo craft and Russia's Progress 74 and 75 resupply ships and Soyuz MS-16 crew ship A Roscosmos Soyuz-2 rocket launched the Progress MS-13 (74P) mission on Friday, December 6, 2019 at 9:34 AM (UTC) The Soyuz rocket is best known for boosting manned Soyuz and unmanned Progress cargo spacecraft into low earth orbit from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, but many more have launched reconnaisance and scientific satellites from both Baikonur and from Russia's once secret Plestesk Northern Cosmodrome. Soyuz can put more than 7 metric tons.

Soyuz (spacecraft) - Wikipedi

Thomas commented: Soyuz and Progress calmly waiting their return to Earth as we fly over Baja California and Chile. Although the spacecraft look similar, Progress (seen at the back) is unmanned and is used for transport of supplies and raising the orbit of the International Space Station Soyuz-FG made its maiden flight on 20 May 2001, carrying a Progress cargo spacecraft to the International Space Station (ISS). It was retired after the 25 September 2019 launch of Soyuz MS-15 to the ISS; the analog control system significantly limited its capabilities and prompted its replacement by Soyuz-2. From 30 October 2002 to 25 September 2019, the Soyuz-FG was the only vehicle used by. Soyuz' Fregat upper stage is an autonomous and flexible upper stage designed to operate as an orbital vehicle. Flight qualified in 2000, it extends the Soyuz launcher's capability to provide access to a full range of orbits (medium-Earth orbit, Sun-synchronous orbit, geostationary transfer orbit, and Earth escape trajectories)

Contains: - Soyuz - Progress - LK Lander - VA - TKS - MIR Core Module - Kvant-1 Module - Sofora Truss - Kvant-2 Module - Kristall Module - Spektr Module. Download (7.94 MiB) Version 1.0.1 for Kerbal Space Program 1.2.2. Released on 2016-12-18. Updated README. Download (3.56 MiB).

Soyuz / Progress » Bricks in Spac

Russian Soyuz Rocket Launches Progress 71 Mission to Space

Soyuz, Progress, and ATVs use the classic probe-and-drogue design. This resembles Apollo hardware, and some mid-air refueling systems, where a probe is guided into a cone, then a latch closes. The probe then retracts to pull the two spacecraft together. The shuttle's system, though, derives from Apollo-Soyuz, designed to prevent either. Russian spacecraft Soyuz MS-17 took the quickest-ever crew trip on Wednesday becoming the first manned spacecraft to fly toward the International Space Station (ISS) via the ultra-fast two-orbit flight plan and reach the destination in three hours. Let's take a look

Soyuz MS-17 is Russia's 63rd Soyuz spacecraft to launch for the International Space Station since 2000 and 146th to fly since the first Soyuz mission in 1967. It is the 100th spacecraft to launch a crew toward the space station, including the Soyuz MS-10 in-flight abort in 2018 A Roscosmos Soyuz-2 rocket launched the Progress MS-11 (72P) mission on Thursday, April 4, 2019 at 11:01 AM (UTC)

Sojuz 28 + Saljut 6 + Progres 1 - PaperModel

The Soyuz-U launch vehicle was an improved version of the original Soyuz rocket.Soyuz-U was part of the R-7 family of rockets based on the R-7 Semyorka missile. Members of this rocket family were designed by the TsSKB design bureau and constructed at the Progress factory in Samara, Russia (now a united company, TsSKB-Progress).The first Soyuz-U flight took place on 18 May 1973, carrying as its. Video: Soyuz-2 rocket assembled with Progress MS-15 ship The State Corporation Roscosmos reported that on July 18, in the assembly and test building of platform No. 31 of the Baikonur Cosmodrome, the joint calculation of specialists from its enterprises completed the general assembly of the Soyuz-2.1a space rocket, which will bring the Progress.

Start rakety Sojuz se satelitem Falcon Eye byl znovu

Sojuz TM a Progress M - koppik

Raketa Sojuz úspěšně vynesla loď Progress k ISS - Novinky

The Progress cargo module is similar in construction to the Soyuz orbital module. The cargo module carries pressurized cargo which the crew transfers into the station through the docking hatch. After the cargo module is unloaded, trash, unwanted equipment, and waste water can be loaded into the Progress for disposal when the spacecraft leaves. 2004 April 30 - . Landing of Soyuz TMA-3 - .Return Crew: Foale, Kaleri, Kuipers. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Foale, Kaleri, Kuipers. Program: ISS. Flight: Soyuz TMA-3, Soyuz TMA-4, Soyuz TMA-4 Delta.. The ISS EO-8 crew of Kaleri and Foale, together with the ESA Delta mission astronaut Kuipers, undocked Soyuz TMA-3 from the International Space Station at 20:52 GMT on 29 April This Progress resupply mission to the ISS was launched by the first Soyuz-FG rocket - a modified Soyuz-U with 5 percent improved perfomance using new fuel utilisation systems. It carried 2.5 tonnes of food, fuel, water, life-support material, and equipment, including spare computer equipment for the ISS Destiny module The Progress M-29M vehicle will also be launched by a Soyuz-U rocket from Baikonur. The upcoming mission will be followed by the first flight of the Progress MS spacecraft in late November for a. Download Soyuz Grotesk Font · Free for commercial use · The typefaces are provided without any copyright restrictions

  • Cormidi prodej.
  • Misa rezy zdrave.
  • Maggie grace lost.
  • Us vs vietnam war.
  • Epson print and scan.
  • Certifikát šperku.
  • Ukřižování ježíše kde.
  • Kolymbia rhodos vylety.
  • Username.
  • Křižíkova fontána praha program.
  • Ceník plastových oken.
  • Pacman google maps.
  • Www creambike.
  • Domy na prodej bez realitky.
  • Veterina info.
  • Jak vypada stuzkovita stolice.
  • Lymská borelioza.
  • Skakaci tyc pogo.
  • Koníčky pro dívky.
  • Javorina terra.
  • 325i 2007.
  • Krvácení po sexu po vysazení antikoncepce.
  • Bugatti chiron v česku.
  • Luzern jezero.
  • Ipl epilace recenze.
  • 787516 pandora.
  • Magnetická rubikova kostka.
  • Degustační menu uherské hradiště.
  • Via placeholder.
  • Barevné čočky nedioptrické ostrava.
  • Aftozní stomatitida příznaky.
  • Vývoj porodnosti.
  • Veteráni pardubice 2018.
  • Praní zavinovačky.
  • Aronie sirup.
  • Turecké zboží.
  • Tour de france 12 etapa.
  • Rorschachův test inkoustových skvrn.
  • Zelena papaya.
  • Chael sonnen.
  • Osvětlení stěny.